Doreen Montag - fever // Peru
Arielle Rittersmith - Chinese medicine // Singapore
Daniel R. George - intergenerational volunteering and dementia // Ohio
Martin Saxer - Tibetan medicine and identity // People’s Republic of China
Ian C. Fitzpatrick - economic differentiation and cardamom cultivation // Nepal
Hayley Lofink - besity among British Bangaladeshi adolescents // London
Karin Eli - phenomenological experience of anorexia nervosa // Israel
Nadine Beckmann - morality, uncertainty and HIV/AIDS // Zanzibar
Barbara Gerke - Life-span, time and ideas of longevity // Tibet
Helen Mary Lloyd - Schizophrenia and ethnic differences // London
Patrizia Bassini - perception and experience of heart distress // Sino-Tibetan frontier
Caroline M. Parler Potter - sensory experience, phenomenology and dance // London
Anna-Lora Wainwright - perceptions of health & illness // People’s Republic of China
Devi Sridhar - World Bank, nutrition policy and practice // Tamil Nadu
James Davies - construction of psychotherapeutic practitioners
Ikumi Okamoto - cancer and the dying process // Japan
Knut Christian Myhre - medical pluralism and a grammar of healing // Tanzania
Adam Hamilton Russell - steroid use and masculinity // England
Kaori Sugishita - traditional healers and biomedicine // Zambia
Ming-Jung Ho - immigration and tuberculosis // Chinese in New York City
Chikako Ozawa - meditation and healing // Japan
Karen Lüdtke - dance, transformation and healing // Italy
Autonomy, cohesion and health. Perceptions of and responses to fever among urban Shipibo-Konibo in Mai Joshin
Doreen Montag, Linacre College, 2011
Supervisors: Elizabeth Ewart, Elisabeth Hsu, David Parkin, Laura Rival
Infectious diseases, such as dengue fever, are increasing in prevalence and have an immense impact on the daily life of Shipibo-Konibo people living in impoverished dwellings in the Peruvian rainforest. Consequently, fever as a central, common symptom becomes more important and visible in times of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. This thesis examines the hybrid constructions, perceptions of and responses to fever in Mai Joshin. The thesis explains the context in which fever experiences are embedded, emphasising the importance of socio- and political-historical dimensions such as the conquest and the concomitant introduction of new diseases. Based on twenty-five months of qualitative fieldwork in Mai Joshin, Peru, the thesis systematically identifies and examines the factors that influence and determine Shipibo-Konibo people’s perceptions of and responses to fever. I combine Bourdieu’s (1990) concept of habitus and Foucault’s (1978; 1994) biopolitics and governmentality approach to stress how complex historical, political-economic, and socio-cultural structures shape the daily reality of Shipibo-Konibo people, in which fever episodes are experienced. Two key classifications are identified: old fever and new fever. Old fever corresponds to a fever classification that is perceived to be embedded in pre-conquest Shipibo-Konibo structures and cosmology. New fever, which includes symptomatic fever and the fever spirit, is related to post-conquest events, following the first epidemic experiences of measles, smallpox and chickenpox. The phenomenological origin of the fever spirit is explored and the relationship between the fever spirit and other illness spirits, such as the denque spirit, are analysed. Pharmaceutical treatment as the main treatment of choice to expel the fever and other illness spirits is addressed in a politico-historical context. The structural influence of evangelical missionaries and biomedicine on the perception of treatment choice is explored in detail. Responses to fever cannot be understood without examining the Shipibo-Konibo people’s social relations under normal circumstances, in a fever case, and in an epidemic. The thesis concludes that Shipibo-Konibo people’s perceptions of and responses to fever are influenced and determined by ‘embodied history’ (Fassin, 2007a,b) and complex political-economic, social, and racial structures that require a carefully contextualised analysis.
Convention, control and creativity: the case of Chinese medicine in Singapore
Arielle Rittersmith, Green Templeton College, 2010
Supervisor: Elisabeth Hsu
The Singaporean government promotes the city-state as the 'biopolis of Asia', with the intention of bolstering their reputation for the most advanced biomedical facilities and research in the region. This politically-crafted image explicitly has not included 'traditional' medicine. Yet, despite their general day-to-day compliance with laws and state agendas, Singaporeans from all walks of life continue to use and practice Chinese medicine, sustaining an adaptive practice that eventually demanded acknowledgement (of a sort) by the state. Beginning with the observation that differing social, political and economic conditions generate variable manifestations of Chinese medicine around the world, this thesis examines facets of medical use and practice in Singapore, focusing on power dynamics, embodied experience and negotiations of convention and creativity. Theoretically and methodologically developed within medical anthropology, this study includes a range of perspectives, including patients, caregivers, physicians, educators, legislators, shop owners, entrepreneurs, researchers and students. Exploring individual and group creativity vis-à-vis state agendas, and environmental aspects of embodied experience, this broad scope considers contemporary medical practice in relation to government policies favouring international investment, urban redevelopment, healthcare regulation, 'multiracial' nationalism and the management of history and heritage.
Can intergenerational volunteering enhance quality of life for persons with mild to moderate dementia? A mixed methods study
Daniel R. George, Hertford College. Trinity Term 2010
Supervisors: Stanley Ulijaszek and Harvey Whitehouse
Social engagement has been strongly associated with better health outcomes for persons in the late-life course. A small number of studies have signalled that one form of engagement – intergenerational volunteering – may be especially beneficial to older adults, but more research has been desirable. This mixed methods study was designed to ethnographically assess the nature of intergenerational relationships and address the hypothesis that intergenerational volunteering would enhance quality of life (QOL) for persons with mild to moderate dementia. Research was carried out in an assisted living home in Cleveland, Ohio with persons affected by dementia who volunteered locally at an elementary school. Qualitative data were gathered through ten months of participant-observation ethnography at the assisted living home and school, as well as through narrative interviews, focus groups, and photographs. Data supported the hypothesis that QOL was enhanced by intergenerational volunteering through a variety of bio-psychosocial pathways, particularly through reduced stress. In addition to demonstrating the possible QOL benefits derived from intergenerational volunteering for persons with mild to moderate dementia, the study also confirmed that such persons can make significant contributions to their community.
Manufacturing Tibetan medicine. The creation of an industry and the moral economy of Tibetanness
Martin Saxer, Green Templeton College, 2010
Supervisors: Elisabeth Hsu and Charles Ramble
This thesis examines the recent creation of a Tibetan medicine industry in the People’s Republic of China. Within a mere decade hospital pharmacies throughout Tibet have been converted into pharmaceutical companies. Confronted with the logic of capital and profit, these companies now produce commodities for a nationwide market. While these developments are depicted as a big success by official China, they also meet with harsh criticism: medicine prices are on the rise and doctors complain that their quality is decreasing; the industry still relies extensively on wildcrafted herbs, which is seen as a threat to the survival of certain plant species; and the industrial application of traditional knowledge raises questions of intellectual property and cultural heritage. The quick and forced industrialisation touches upon much more than technical aspects of manufacturing Tibetan medicines. What is at stake is a fundamental (re-)manufacturing of Tibetan medicine as a system of knowledge and practice and its role in contemporary Tibet. The industry lies at the intersection of conflicting agendas and visions for Tibet. On the one hand, the industrial Tibetan medicine serves as an allegorical figure of Tibet’s rapid development and progress. The creation of an industry exemplifies the scope and speed of the Party State’s modernist schemes. On the other hand, Tibetan remedies are part of a booming “ethnicity industry”. They are marketed as products of ancient wisdom rather than science and modern technology. Industrial Tibetan medicine has emerged as a space in which Tibet as such is being discussed and shaped. My ethnography explores their tactics and strategies, their ethical reasoning and their engagement in the market not only for pills and remedies but also for Tibetanness – a market, I argue, that bears the characteristics of a moral economy at large, enmeshed in the global political spectacle that surrounds the “Tibet question” and China’s rise as a world power.
Cardamom, class and change in a Limbu village in east Nepal
Ian C. Fitzpatrick, Wolfson College, 2010
Supervisors: David Gellner and Laura Rival
This thesis investigates the history of economic differentiation in a Limbu village in east Nepal. By examining three historically overlapping productive processes – subsistence agriculture, cash crop cardamom cultivation, and international migration – this thesis shows how each productive process has contributed in different ways to the acceleration of economic differentiation. In particular this thesis focuses on cardamom cultivation which first provided a means to transform significantly the lives of a large section of Limbu society. Introduced into the village by a local inhabitant in 1968, and thereafter spread throughout the whole Kabeli river valley and beyond, the cardamom plant has given many households access to considerable cash. This has enabled some households to purchase property in the plains, send their children to English-medium private schools, and send sons abroad for work. Households with little or no cardamom however, have fallen into increasing indebtedness, losing access to land and becoming increasingly dependent on wage labour for survival. The thesis also discusses international labour migration, which has more recently become another important and lucrative productive process for a certain proportion of the village. This has resulted in the rapid growth of a dispersed village in Jhapa in the plains, which has become a hub for international migrants as well as a symbol of the hopes and aspirations of villagers. This has brought about yet further economic differentiation between households that have been able to finance visas for work abroad, and those that continue to struggle day to day. Despite the increased integration of the village with a national and global market, the continued existence of Limbu language and cultural practises emphasises the active role villagers have played in shaping their current condition.
Fat chances: a biocultural approach to overweight and obesity among British Bangladeshi adolescents in East London
Hayley Lofink, St Cross College, 2009
Supervisors: Stanley Ulijaszek and Bridget Anderson
The coexistence of underweight and overweight in the same communities and households is a phenomenon generally associated with some developing countries; however, this may be an emerging pattern in England. A survey of British Bangladeshi adolescents aged 11-14 years old in East London shows that 7%, 34% and 20% of boys and 3%, 29% and 14% of girls are underweight, overweight and obese, respectively. Research from the US and Canada reports higher levels of obesity in second and third generation immigrants compared to recently arrived immigrants or the general population. Given that the bulk of first-generation immigrants from Bangladesh arrived to England in the 1950s and 1960s, many individuals of Bangladeshi origin residing in England are second and third generation British. Therefore, it is uncertain why this population has maintained comparatively lower levels of obesity than other minority ethnic groups in England, and as compared to North American trends. This research aims to examine the cultural, social and economic production of underweight, overweight and obesity in low-income British Bangladeshi adolescents in East London. It is argued that qualitative research exploring the cultural, social and economic aspects of food preferences, preparation, allocation and consumption and an examination of activity patterns are necessary to understand these trends.
Understanding anorexia nervosa through the phenemenological experiences of Israeli anorectics: a critical biocultural analysis
Karin Eli, 2009
Supervisor: Elisabeth Hsu
Anorexia nervosa is a complex disorder, and as such continues to challenge clinicians, biomedical researchers, and social theorists alike. While interpretations of anorexia nervosa abound, they are constructed as competing rather than complementary, and the exclusive relegation of anorexic meanings to demarcated domains– psychological, biomedical, or societal – precludes a full understanding of this disorder. The purpose of my doctoral research is to engender a holistic understanding of anorexia nervosa, incorporating the strengths of the psychological, biomedical, and feminist postmodernist perspectives, while eliminating the reductionism with which they are marred. I therefore intend to develop a critical biocultural analysis of anorexia nervosa, reconceptualizing this disorder as produced and maintained by the multifaceted interactions of the individual and the societal, and accounting for the effects of biology, psychology, history, and political economy. My analysis will rely upon anorexic women's own experiences and meanings, as conveyed through a phenomenological ethnography of anorexic embodiment. By conducting my research in Israel, uniquely situated at the edges of ‘the West', I will also endeavor to problematize the essentializing portrayal of the (stereo)typical anorectic as middle class, Western, Christian, and white – an image upon which most of the extant interpretations of anorexia nervosa are premised.
Morality and uncertainty living with HIV/AIDS in Zanzibar
Nadine Beckmann, St Anthony's College, 2008
Supervisor: David Parkin
This thesis explores the complex negotiations involved in Zanzibaris explanation and management of HIV/AIDS in the light of technical and wider global changes. Unique in its ethnographic focus, this is the first full-length ethnography investigating how a predominantly Muslim society deals with the growing threat of the HIV pandemic. The focus is on HIV positive peoples experiences of living with AIDS in this small island archipelago off the Tanzanian coast. Employing an actor-centred approach which emphasises the possibilities for agency in the context of structural limitations, illness and treatment are analysed as a varying and often unpredictable process. The collective backdrop to peoples responses to AIDS in Zanzibar is a pervasive sense of uncertainty, which, I argue, is better suited than the commonly employed concept of risk to understand the ways AIDS is made sense of in the islands. Discourses about AIDS in Zanzibar are fraught with uncertainty and contradiction, and the moral discourse has taken centre stage in the society's efforts to create meaning out of suffering. The thesis explores how different local and global views on life with the virus and competing approaches to illness and treatment are creatively fashioned, utilised, or dismissed by people living with HIV/AIDS in their efforts to normalise their condition. The recent introduction of free antiretroviral treatment has enormously aided this process and provided immense relief from the suffering they have endured. Highlighting the complex interdependencies between socio-cultural, political, economical, and biomedical factors this thesis contributes to the growing body of in-depth, contextual studies of HIV/AIDS that take into account both global interconnections and local disjunctures.
Time and longevity: concepts of the life-span among Tibetans in the Darjeeling Hills, India
Barbara Gerke, Green College, 2008
Supervisors: Charles Ramble and Geoffrey Samuel
This thesis explores Tibetan ideas of the life-span and the various life-forces that influence longevity. It presents ethnographic data from seventeen months of fieldwork among Tibetans in the Darjeeling Hills, West Bengal, India (2004 - 2006). Translations from two Tibetan medical texts (twelfth and seventeenth century CE) and a selection of astrological tables and divinatory texts that are currently used by the Tibetans in this region supplement the ethnographic material. From these materials emerges temporality as crucial to the study of longevity. While the concept of the life-span as such, in Tibetan known as tse (tshe), is not necessarily understood in durational terms and implies rather the idea of a reservoir, the various factors that exist to strengthen or "fill" this reservoir are intrinsically linked to temporal frameworks. For example, various systems of vitality and their reckoning (e.g. temporal ideas influence the ways people choose auspicious days for medical treatment, avoid the injury of vital points in the body that embed a vital essence, use almanacs to establish the status of annually-changing factors that determine their fortune, and interpret divination on the life-span in wider contexts of Buddhist ideologies). The thesis argues that it is through practices of temporalisation, in which Tibetan professionals and lay people mediate between temporal frameworks and the situation of individuals - or of social groups - that they strengthen their life-forces. In the pursuit of protecting and prolonging tse medical, astrological, divinatory, and ritual activities become mapped out. The thesis discusses practices of temporalisation in their wider contexts, involving ideas of karma, obstacles, auspiciousness, and of "blessing", by drawing from recent studies on the anthropology of time and by emphasizing situational agency.
Ethnic difference in perceived family burden and service use patterns in schizophrenia: a matched cohort study
Helen Mary Lloyd, Michaelmas Term 2007
Supervisors: Tom Burns, Elisabeth Hsu
This thesis investigated levels of parental burden in UK Punjabi Indian Sikh and White British parents with a son or daughter with schizophrenia. It explored clinical, family and service use variables that are associated with burden, and tested if burden predicted one-year outcome. It also included a chapter on qualitative anthropological inquiry exploring the local, social, and cultural factors that help shape perceptions of caregiving. Levels of burden and distress were generally low and barely showed differences between the groups studied. This may be due to several related factors: (1) generally low levels of patient symptoms and disability, and generally good levels of functioning, (2) generally low levels of psychiatric morbidity in parents, and (3) the presence of familial, social and religious support. The qualitative anthropological study suggested that high quality relationships between two persons may also be important (e.g. mother and son), which the quantitative assessment of the burden may have failed to predict. Indian parents exhibited high expressed emotion (EE), characterised by over involvement more frequently and Indian patients utilised mental health services less than White patients. The findings of the thesis suggest that parents of stabilised offspring generally do not perceive their role as burdensome. With appropriate support patients can live & work independently and maintain quality relationships. While local socio-environmental factors can shape human experience, and while Indian and White parents differ in some respects, the findings also suggest that there exist many characteristics of human culture that transcend group identities such as ethnicity, race or religion.
Heart distress on the Sino-Tibetan frontier: history, gender, ecology and ritual practice in Tibetan popular perceptions and experiences of heart distress (snying nad) and other illnesses in the Qinghai part of Amdo
Patrizia Bassini, St Cross College, Trinity Term 2007
Supervisors: Elisabeth Hsu and Charles Ramble
Stimulated by a marked tendency of medical anthropologists of Eastern medicines to explore “medical systems” in urban and institutional contexts, this thesis investigates health care from the home-base and the standpoint of ordinary people engaged in popular practices. This study attempts to answer questions such as: “What do we learn from the popular stance on health and illness?”, “What motivates the choice of health care?” and “Why is it important to consider popular perceptions and experiences of health and illness?” Through the analysis of the phenomenon of heart distress ( snying nad ) among other common illnesses such as gastric ( pho nad ) and gallbladder ( mkhris nad ) disorders, this thesis shows how people in rural areas in Amdo are creative agents of their own well-being. Patients explain heart distress as the outcome of shared and personal histories and the harmful influence of the sacred landscape they inhabit. The majority, however, are young brides who have to adjust to working hard in the household of often unsympathetic parents-in-law. Heart distress is not easy to overcome: habitual practices such as the hierarchy of food consumption in Tibetan households, for instance, constitute and express social and kin relations. These are embedded in a religious cosmology that constitutes an important determinant, together with the surrounding ecology, for the way people choose to treat other illnesses too.
Learning to dance: sensory experience in British contemporary dance training
Caroline M. Parler Potter, The Queen's College, Hilary Term 2007
Supervisor: Elisabeth Hsu
This thesis addresses the social process of bodily learning and the cultural shaping of sensory experience. Based on heavily participatory fieldwork undertaken at a nationally recognized school for professional contemporary dance in London, it explores issues of social access, identity, bodily transformation, and institutionalized bodily control as they relate to the process of becoming a professional dancer in Britain. A central theoretical premise underpinning this investigation is that the heretofore unresolved division between concepts of ‘mind’ and ‘body’ (and its related dyad of ‘subject’ and ‘object’) is not merely a philosophical construct, but has its roots in actual bodily experience. I argue that a reshaping of dancers’ collective habitus (to use Bourdieu’s term) towards one that I describe as ‘experimental formality’ occurs through a bombardment of novel sensory experiences, which in turn become normalized through highly repetitive practice. I further argue that as a result of incorporating this reshaped habitus, dancers embody institutionally generated strategies for bodily scrutiny and control – a self-alienating struggle that I call ‘autopolitics’. This work concludes with a close description of seven key sensory modes experienced by dance students during training. In elucidating the multiple and overlapping relationships that exist between senses of kinaesthesia, heat, pain, taste, touch, sound and vision, I call for the recognition of a movement-framed sensorium as both an outcome of dance training and the medium through which bodily transformation occurs.
Perceptions of health, illness and healing in a Sichuan Village, China
Anna Lora-Wainwright, Green College, Michaelmas Term 2006
Supervisor: Elisabeth Hsu
This thesis explores attitudes to the body, illness and healing in contemporary rural China through the prism of Pierre Bourdieu's notion of habitus. It is divided in two parts. Part 1 shows that bodily dispositions articulate ways of engaging with one's surroundings and claims to authority and status. Hierarchies with regard to what constitutes a desirable body or a healthy diet are not stable but always disputed. Negotiations surrounding them are informative of wider social processes and serve to reproduce or challenge social relations and values. Part 2 examines bodily practices at times of illness through the case of oesophagus cancer. I highlight how family relationships are produced and contested through various practices of care, and that such relations engender particular bodily attitudes. Closer attention to practices during illness are therefore important for understanding how illness is experienced by all involved, but also how it intersects with family relations, attitudes to resources, strategies to secure them and invest them, and perceptions of the state and welfare provision. Employing habitus allows a closer grasp of the intricate processes through which family relations are formed, why families opt for particular forms of treatment and how the effectiveness of therapy is produced.
The art of the bank: nutrition policy and practice in India
Devi Sridhar, Wolfson College, Michaelmas Term 2006
Supervisors: Stanley Ulijaszek and David Gellner
This thesis is an ethnography of the World Bank. It critically examines the nutrition operations of the World Bank by way of the design and implementation of the Bank-funded Tamil Nadu Integrated Nutrition Project. It is an attempt to uncover the workings of power through a close look at the structures, discourses and agencies through which nutrition policy operates. Specifically I investigate how hunger and malnutrition have been defined and treated by the World Bank and with what consequences for the Bank's projects and the communities at which they are aimed. Hence this thesis looks both at the World Bank as an institution and at a Bank project in Tamil Nadu. I have attempted to untangle the ideology, politics and models that drive the Bank. I have also addressed why the Bank does what it does in nutrition.
A grammar of transformation: analysing anthropologically the construction of the psychotherapeutic practitioner
James Davies, St Cross College, Trinity Term 2006
Supervisor: David Parkin
In my paper I shall offer a general anatomy of a novice healer's transformation by analysing anthropologically how psychotherapeutic practitioners are constructed. I shall focus on the institutional devices employed by training academies to facilitate this transformation. Laying special emphasis on the construction of the person through personal therapy and supervision, I will treat the therapeutic encounter as a ritual encounter, which, through the manipulation of emotion, language, and symbol, alters the conceptual orientation of the therapist. As all such institutions are situated in a wider social context, this investigation must also be cognizant of this situated position influences the process of trainee re-socialisation. Thus attention will be given to how wider public perceptions influence the profession into which trainees are being initiated, and how these perceptions, negative or otherwise, influence the process of training itself. By perceiving the interrelations between self, curative, and social systems, and by further assessing how public perceptions of psychotherapy impact upon practitioner training and identity, I will show that the agenda of psychotherapeutic training institutes involves more than preparing practitioners to heal the patient but rather it is about sustaining a healing tradition, a tradition fighting for survival amid a sea of competing healing alternatives.
Journey from life to death: an anthropological study of cancer patients in Japan
Ikumi Okamoto, Pembroke College, Trinity term 2005
Supervisor: David Parkin
The kind of diseases affecting Japanese people and the causes of death in Japan have changed a great deal in the last several decades due to various factors, most notably the advancement of medical technology and changes in life style. The number of people who die from lifestyle diseases such as cancer, which are chronic and possibly need long-term hospitalization, increases every year. In the 1970s the hospice philosophy was introduced to Japan from the West. It encourages patients and their families to affirm life and to regard dying as a normal process, and offers a support system to help patients live as actively as possible and sustain a sense of selfhood, autonomy and dignity until they die. In practice, however, the dying process is still regarded as normal in contemporary Japan and many patients fail to die in the way proposed by the hospice philosophy. There is also disagreement between the patients and the medical professionals regarding their respective idea of good death. Hospices and PCUs, which were initially developed in order to provide humane care, have become places which provide a new form of institutionalized death, and consequently constrain the patients' dying patterns. In this thesis, I investigate the above issues from the perspectives of the anthropology and ethnography of Japan. I demonstrate how the framework of van Gennep's rites of passage and Turner's concept of liminality can be used to analyze the current situation in Japanese hospice settings. I also perform an ethnographic analysis of Japanese attitudes towards health, illness and death in order to illustrate the reasons why some Japanese patients fail to die a good health as proposed by hospice philosophy.
The grammar of healing: a study of eclecticism and historical continuity among the Chagga of Rombo District, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
Knut Christian Myhre, St Antony's College, Trinity Term 2003
Supervisor: Wendy James
In this thesis I am investigating medical pluralism among the Chagga-speaking of Rombo District, Kilimanjaro Region , Tanzania . Against the background of Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy, I am describing the concepts, practices and objects involved, in order to investigate how the use of different healing practices is meaningful to the people involved. The different healing practices are analysed against the background of a vernacular notion of ‘dwelling', which can be characterised as the orderly performance of production, reproduction and consumption. The activity of ‘dwelling' is constitutive of the homestead, affinal relationships, marriage and the person. It is demonstrated how the various vernacular illness conceptions can be understood as different forms of disruption of ‘dwelling', and the therapeutic alternatives are analysed according to the way they respond to, and deal with, these ‘disruptions'. It is then shown how an overlapping set of ‘family resemblance' concepts interrelate the different therapy alternatives, and make them part of the comprehensive grammar of healing. People's multilingual capabilities entail that this grammar extends geographically to create a horizon of meaning that transcends linguistic, ethnic and cultural boundaries. By means of early ethnographic sources, in particular those of the German missionaries Bruno Gutman and Johannes Raum, I argue that the concepts and practices of the present medically plural situation have a long history in the area, and cannot be accounted for solely in terms of recent social, economic and political changes.
Nurturing nature: men, steroids and anthropology
Adam Hamilton Russell, Magdalen College, Hilary Term 2003
Supervisors: Nick Allen, Elisabeth Hsu, Sarah Green
This thesis looks at several groups of men in southeast England who are engaged in the sale, traffic and use of certain pharmaceuticals to achieve a sense of “masculine performance enhancement” through chemically and nutritionally enhanced muscles and libidos, as well as biotechnological control over their physical and emotional selves. Through non-attribution interviews with these men, and analysis of larger media (print media, electronic media, and academic and scientific journals), this thesis seeks to place their behaviour within a social, political, historical and economic context. By focusing on the phenomenological aspects of bodybuilding, crime and masculinity, this thesis analyses why these men do what they do; what it is they feel they achieve from their behaviours; and how those behaviours can be best understood as a function of living in and through bodies that are being ‘denatured’ through advances in biology, technology, and the larger media. The disjunction between how these men are supposed to understand themselves according to Euro-American discourses of the self – as natural, circumscribed, and delineated citizens of England – and how they have experientially come to understand themselves – as local “big men” able to remake their bodies and personalities, as seen as explicable only through examining what it “feels” like to be in a body that is constantly manipulated, observed, and fussed over. these men are caught in the interstices among a post-modern imperative towards self-invention with (or submission to) biotechnology, the call of hegemonic masculinity, and the criminalisation of certain drugs that call into question the otherwise self-evident distinction between natural bodies and ‘enhanced’ machines. As a result, although they believe they are surpassing physical, moral and legal boundaries, in the process of “nurturing nature” they are reinscribing certain cultural forms and, ultimately, remain firmly situated within Euro-American social dynamics. This thesis is the first to examine performance enhancement and performance enhancing drugs from a phenomenological and anthropological purview. This thesis argues that there is a need to understand how the body interpellates social phenomena, and this can best be accomplished by analysing performance enhancement from a Maussian perspective of humans as psychological, social and physiological beings.
Traditional healers in a Christian nation: a study of Ng'anga in modern Zambia
Kaori Sugishita, Linacre College, Trinity Term 2002
Supervisor: David Parkin
In Zambian societies, discourses and practices concerning witchcraft and spirits constitute and indigenous system for dealing with affliction. This system has been historically changing as it interacts with modern/Western systems, particularly biomedicine and Christianity. A recent and significant development is that the Zambian government has recognized ng'anga , the specialists supporting the indigenous system, as the practitioners of a “traditional medicine” that could be introduced into the national health care system. For this reason, ng'anga are encouraged to reformulate their activities in accordance with biomedical standards. On the other hand, ng'anga attempt to incorporate such activities that cannot be rationalized from a biomedical perspective into Christianity, which has become the national religion of Zambia. Thus, the indigenous system for dealing with affliction is developing into either herbalism or a Christian healing system, owing to direct intervention by the state power. In many past and present African societies, we find various types of specialists who deal with human affliction through indigenous discourses and practices. Different English terms have been applied to them depending on ethnographic and analytical context; “witch doctors”, “medicine men”, “diviners”, “spirit mediums”, “traditional healers” etc. Ng'anga (sing. sing'anga), which means “doctors”, is a generic term for such specialists in many Bantu languages. In contemporary Zambian societies, ng'anga are still plentiful and relied upon by people in making sense of and solving their afflictions. Setting aside a concern with specialization, ng'anga are characterized for their employment of indigenous medicine, though their activities are not restricted to physical problems and are based on ideas about supernatural/unscientific causes of affliction, i.e. witchcraft and spirits. Ng'anga are regarded as being able to discern and affect these agents, for which they constitute an indispensable part of a social system dealing with affliction. This thesis investigates the interaction between such an indigenous system and its modern/Western counterparts, namely biological medicine and Christianity, which are all under the direct influence of state power.
Discourses on immigrant tuberculosis: a case study of New York City;s Chinese laborers
Ming-Jung Ho, Linacre Collegem Michaelmas Term 2001
Supervisor: David Parkin
This thesis addresses the issue of immigrant tuberculosis through a case study analyzing tuberculosis among Chinese immigrant labourers in New York City from five different perspectives — public health providers, private biomedical providers, traditional Chinese medical providers, and Chinese immigrant labourers, with and without tuberculosis disease. The first three chapters of the thesis examine the evidence presented in public health and biomedical doctors' discourses to support the importation hypothesis. I argue that the dominant biomedical explanation of immigrant tuberculosis as imported is partly a sociocultural construction, rather than a view that is completely based on unbiased scientific evidence. Furthermore, I discuss the underlying power relations shaping these discourses in a situation wherein Chinatown biomedical doctors are shown to be an important intermediary between the “dominant” public health authority and the “marginal” Chinese immigrant population. In the subsequent chapters, the more “marginal” discourses of traditional Chinese medical practitioners and Chinese immigrant labourers are discussed. An alternative, multi-factorial model emerges from the comparison between these dominant and marginal discourses. This model takes into account not only the conventional bacterial factor, but also three other levels of factors contributing to tuberculosis among New York City’s Chinese labourers: the ecological, the cultural, and the politico-economic.
From religion to therapy: an anthropological investigation of Naikan Therapy in Japan
Chikako Ozawa, St Antony's College, Hilary term 2001
Supervisor: David Parkin
This thesis is an anthropological investigation of Naikan, a Japanese practice based upon meditation-like bodily engagement and recalling one's past. Meaning ‘introspection', Naikan was founded by Ishin Yoshimoto, who adapted it from the Shin Buddhist cultivation practice of mishirabe , a sensory deprivation practice for achieving enlightenment. In Naikan clients sit separated from each other by paper screens for fifteen hours a day for seven days. They recall their past from birth to the present from the perspectives of significant others, periodically reporting their findings to the practitioner in confession-like style. It is a method for the reconstruction of the self through the recovery of memories and the rewriting of autobiography. Although scholars tend to treat Naikan as a therapy, I argue that this is only one dimension of Naikan and explore it from a broader perspective. This thesis proceeds on two levels: as an ethnographic analysis of Naikan, in which I describe my own experiences as a client and assistant practitioner as well as the experiences of others; and as a development of the theoretical issues of the social construction of memory, body practice and healing. I seek to explain how a relatively simple method can yield such transformative results, looking at the Naikan setting and its themes, the confessions of clients, the client practitioner relationship, Naikan's roots in Shin Buddhism, its social organization and comparisons and contrasts with Catholic confession, psychoanalysis, the New Age and new spirituality movements.
Theatre and therapy: the Tarantula's Dance in the Salento, Italy
Karen Lüdtke, Linacre College, Trinity Term 2000
Supervisor: David Parkin
This study aims to explore in what ways theatre - considered as a form of social interaction, encompassing dance, drama, music and ritual - and therapy can be seen to overlap on the level of experience. Both are viewed as inherently transformative processes. In order to research these issues, past and present uses of the music and dance of the Apulian tarantella, known as pizzica, are explored. For centuries, tarantism rituals were engaged with to heal those said-to-be-bitten by the tarantula spider through extensive dancing. Since the 1990s, the pizzica has returned to the limelight for entertainment and tourism, for political and commercial purposes, as well as therapeutic and spiritual reasons. This research examines how therapeutic efficacy, promoting and safe-guarding a sense of vitality or ‘presence, is furthered or hindered in the contexts of tarantism and so-called neo-tarantism in the Salento, the southernmost part of Apulia, by considering similarities and variations that mark these phenomena