Ina joined the School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography as Leverhulme Early Career Research Fellow in September 2015. Ina received her doctorate in Development Studies from the University of Oxford (2014) where her research focused on processes of socio-cultural change and norm (re)-making in conflict and post-conflict societies. Drawing on the case-study of Nepal's civil war (1996-2006) and on fieldwork in the former Maoist base area, Ina’s research explored how the situation of war and the arrival of new ideology come together in transforming people’s everyday lives and practices, the norms they abide by and the values they subscribe to, leading to a profound reconfiguration of key social structures.
Ina’s postdoctoral research project will explore how wide-scale outmigration from Nepal (the third biggest receiver of remittances in the world) reconstitutes kinship, gender, and inter-generational relations in the communities of origin and examine how kinship ties are sustained in the situation of transnational mobility. She is particularly interested in the role that material flows and new information technologies play in maintaining webs of relatedness and in giving rise to new forms of sociality and family life.
Prior to joining ISCA, Ina worked with Young Lives, Oxford Department of International Development, where she pursued her interests in the anthropology of youth and childhood.
2016 ‘When Gods Return to their Homeland in the Himalayas’: Maoism, Religion andChange in the Model Village of Thabang, mid-Western Nepal’, in D. Gellner, S. Hauser and C. Letizia (eds) Religion, Secularism and Ethnicity in Contemporary Nepal. Delhi: Oxford University Press India.
(with Jo Boyden, forthcoming) ‘The Impact of Development on Children’, in International Encyclopaedia of Anthropology (ed. by Paul Sillitoe )
2015 ‘De-mythologizing the ‘’Village of Resistance’: How Rebellious were the Peasants in the Maoist base area of Nepal? Dialectical Anthropology, 39 (4): 353-379.
'Rules that apply in times of crisis': time, agency, and norm-remaking during Nepal's People's War
"I started working because I was hungry": The consequences of food insecurity for children's well-being in rural Ethiopia.
Food insecurity, the state of being without reliable access to a sufficient quantity of safe, nutritious food, is a persistent problem in rural Ethiopia. However, little qualitative research has explored how food insecurity affects children over time, from their point of view. What are the effects of economic 'shocks' such as illness, death, loss of livestock, drought and inflation on availability of food, and children's well-being? To what extent do social protection schemes (in this case, the Productive Safety Net Programme) mitigate the long-term effects of food insecurity for children? The paper uses a life-course approach, drawing on analysis of four rounds of qualitative longitudinal research conducted in 2007, 2008, 2011 and 2014, with eight case study children, as part of Young Lives, an ongoing cohort study. Children's descriptions of the importance of food and a varied diet (dietary diversity) in everyday life were expressed in a range of qualitative methods, including interviews, group discussions and creative methods. The paper suggests that while the overall picture of food security in Ethiopia has improved in the past decade, for the poorest rural families, food insecurity remains a major factor influencing decisions about a range of matters - children's time allocation, whether to continue in school, whether to migrate for work, and whether they marry. The paper argues that experiences of food insecurity need to be understood holistically, in relation to other aspects of children's lives, at differing stages of the life-course during childhood. The paper concludes that nutritional support beyond early childhood needs to be a focus of policy and programming.
'When Gods Return to their Homeland in the Himalayas': Maoism, Religion, and Change in the Model Village of Thabang, Mid-Western Nepal
Based on ethnographic research in the former Maoist base area of Nepal, this chapter explores the impact of the People’s War and Maoist ideology on religious beliefs and practices in Nepal. Drawing on the parable of the ‘flight of Gods’ and on the life history of one of the village elders, the chapter explores the gradual demise of Hinduism as a dominant mode of religious practice and weaves together key themes for understanding religious change engendered by the conflict -- de-sacralisation of once sacred spaces and once sacred polity, transgression of the boundaries between purity and pollution, increasing privatisation of religious practices, and creation of the vacuum in transcendent authority which in many cases is filled by new religious or quasi-religious movements, such as Christianity and Maoism itself.
Nepal, People's War, Maoism, Secularism in South Asia, Christianity in South Asia, Religious Change
Balancing School and Work with New Opportunities: Changes in Children’s Gendered Time Use in Ethiopia (2006-2013)
Focusing on the relationship between children’s work and school attendance, this paper explores time use trends among boys and girls in Ethiopia. It does this by comparing the time use of two cohorts of children at the same age, 12 years, but interviewed at two different points in time, 2006 and 2013. In assessing the pattern over this period we have taken four contributory factors into account; gendered norms and aspirations for children’s futures; local opportunities for both
schooling and work; the characteristics of schools and different kinds of work; and intra-household dynamics. Broad trends are identified through survey data and case studies of two rural communities that have experienced rapid economic and social transformation, with associated increases in gendered opportunities for work. We find that overall there is a small reduction in the hours worked by 12-year-olds over the seven years. However, this trend is mainly in urban areas.
Rural boys are found to have increased their working hours. By examining two case-study communities that have experienced increasing economic development and gendered work
opportunities we find that, contrary to expectations, the increased returns to work have lowered boys’ education aspirations and increased their school drop-out rates relative to girls’.
Time Use, Gender, Ethiopia
Gendered Trajectories through School, Work and Marriage in Vietnam
This paper discusses the school, work and marriage trajectories of young people in Vietnam, using analysis of Young Lives longitudinal qualitative data gathered from 16 children and their parents between 2007 and 2014 as well as descriptive survey statistics. One of the main findings is that gender is not always a key driver of children’s divergent schooling, working and marriage trajectories. Instead, intersectionality of socio-economic status, locality and ethnicity play a more important role, with locality and ethnicity associated with the widest gaps in school, work and marriage trajectories. Gender gaps in Vietnam do not appear to open up until mid- to late adolescence, close to upper secondary school age, with girls more likely to continue their
education at a higher level. However, girls’ slight advantage in education does not necessarily translate into an advantage in the labour market, since boys have access to more prestigious and
better-paid jobs. The findings indicate that gender gaps evolve over the life course and are shaped by socio-economic status, ethnicity and locality, as well as by social norms, which have a particularly strong bearing on gender relations as girls and boys come of age and as they start families. This points towards the centrality of longitudinal research and the life-course approach for understanding the gendered nature of young people’s pathways (and by implication, the importance of tracking children through into adulthood).